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Attn: Mr. William F. RUST, Ph.D.

Athena Review.

Quarterly Journal of Archaeology, History and Exploration

volume 2, 1998, number 4.


Thracian Treasures from Bulgaria

On 20 February 1998 in Saint Loius, MI was opened the spectacular collection of Thracian antiquities "WEALTH OF THRACE - TREASURES FROM BULGARIA". It eight will be hosting in eight North American Museums for a year. More than 250 precious objects of great archaeological and art importance are on display for the first time together on loan from a dozen regional and central museums in Bulgaria. They was first hosted in Japan in 1994-1995. Dating from the third millenium BC to the third century AD, most of these masterpieces of Ancient Art have been uncovered from excavations of Thracian mounds undertaken within the last decade.



by Evgeni Paunov



In memoriam

Professsori Ivani Venedikov

(16.1. 1916-19.8. 1997) -

distinguished researcher

of the Thracian culture


In the last few decades nearly twenty significant Thracian treasures have been discovered in the present Bulgarian lands. At present, much of our knowledge of ancient Thrace derives from them. The high artistic mastery, stylistic features and workmanship of these original Thracian objects, ornamental in their majority, clearly testify to the rich traditions in the applied arts. They are our main sources of information for gaining insights and conclusions of the Thracian history, culture and art.

The Thracians are one of the most well-known peoples of the ancient world. Herodotus, the father of history, has described them in Historiae (V, 3-8) as ‘the biggest and numerous people in the world, next to the Indians; were they under one ruler, or united, they would in my judgement be invincible and the strongest nation on earth; but since there is no way or contrivance to bring this about, they are for this reason weak. They have many names, each tribe according to its region. All these Thracians are alike in their usages, save the Getae, and the Trausi, and those that dwell above the Crestonaeans. ...They worship no gods but Ares, Dionysos, and Artemis. But their princes, unlike the rest of their country men, worship Hermes above all gods and swear only by him, claiming him for their ancestor. ...Among those of them that are rich, the funeral rites are these: -They lay out the dead for three days, then after killing all kinds of victims and first making lamentation they feast; after that they make away with the body either by fire or else by burial in the earth, and when they have built a mound they set on foot all kinds of contests, wherein the greatest prizes are offered for the hardest fashion of single combat.

The Greek general and military historian Xenophon during his march within Persia and Thrace in 401-399 BC has added in Anabasis (VI, 1, 4-6): ‘After sacrificing some of the oxen which they have captured and other animals too, they provided a feast which was quite a good one, though they ate reclining on low couches and drunk out of horn cups which they had come across the country. When they had poured the libations and sung the Paean, first of all two Thracians stood up and performed a dance to the flute, wearing full armour. They leapt high into the air with great agility and brandished their swords. In the end one of them, as everybody thought, struck the other one, who fell to the ground, acting all the time. ... Then some more Thracians carried the stripped man out, , as though he was dead, though actually he had not been hurt in the slightest. ...(VII, 4, 4) It was then (in winter) easy to see why the Thracians wear fox skins round their heads and ears, and why they have tunics that cover their legs and not only the upper part of the body, and why, when they are on horseback, they wear long cloaks reaching down to their feet instead of our short coats.’

More information about the Thracians can be found in Homer’s Iliad and The Odyssey, in Thucydides’ Peloponessian War, in Arrian’s The March of Alexander, in Atheneus, in Strabo’ Geography and many other Greek and Roman authors.

The natural mineral resources and fertile soil of Thrace made this area very prosperous and rich as early as in prehistory. The whole chronological system of the Balkan prehistory was made on the basis of a tell in South Bulgaria in the village of Karanovo. There were intensive cultural and trade contacts with Anatolia and East Mediterranean basin, which are clearly seen in the sophisticated forms and ornaments of the Neolithic pottery. Gold and silver played an important role as early in Late Chalcolithic era. A rich flat cemetery found near Varna on the Black Sea coast has provided a great variety of fine gold objects and adornments with a sheer amount weight of over 6 kilograms (Fig. 1).

During the Bronze Age, except of the high development of pottery, we have an impressing gold treasure. The Vâlchitrân Treasure found in Central North Bulgaria in 1925, consisting of 13 gold articles weighing a total of 12.5 kilograms, is remarkable of its precise craftsmanship (Fig. 2). There are seven lids and six other vessels: a large kyathos (Fig. 3), a triple receptacle and four cups - a strange assortment of objects to find buried in the ground. This find is distinguished by the simplicity of the shapes of vessels, and also by the sobtiety of design. The treasure dates from the end of the Late Bronze Age and some vessels have closest parallels in Mycenae. It clearly testifies for the extensive cultural contacts of Thrace with the Mycenaean world.

With an exception of the gold vessels from Vâlchitrân and Kazichene near Sofia ascribed to a much earlier date, all other discussed treasures were manifactured within the period from the 5th to the 3rd century BC. This was the time of the largest economic, political and cultural expansion of Thrace, the heyday of its kings and its rich tribal aristocracy chiefs. This was also the zenith of power of the Thracian Odrysian kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, in particular during Kotys I (386-359 BC), the rival of king Philip II of Macedon in his first years of reign. Following a series of annexation wars and alliances, the Odrysian kings were reunited the greater part of Thrace after the Median wars and played an important role in the history of Southeastern Europe between 475 and 350 BC. Its kings were striving to create a unified and strong European state similar to the Persian empire. The Thrace economic, political and cultural connections with the rest of the Eastern Mediterranean, the Near East, the Balkans and the Black Sea hinterland states, had fastly distinguished it as one of the largest and leading centres of the ancient world. And this happened in the immediate vicinity of the high culture of Greek cities and colonies, Macedonia, Persia, Central and Eastern European peoples.

Although many Classical authors mentioned the Thracians, they remained somewhat obscure to the modern world until the period of First World War. Until then, all Thracian Art objects were generally assigned to the Scythian culture, which enjoyed great popularity at that time. In 1917 professor Dr. Bogdan D. Filow, the first director of Bulgarian Institute of Archaeology, has written a study in which he has proved with serious arguments the indigenous character and style of the native Thracian Art. Since then a huge quantity of new and important Thracian art objects were recovered in Bulgaria. Today this is undoubtedly accepted by almost all Classical and primitive art historians, even from the Russian ones. Many other Thracian monuments also are known from southern Romania, northern Greece and Turkey.

In essence, the history of Thracian Art is the history of toreutics, as Greeks called the metal-casting and engraving. In fact, Thrace was known with its silver and gold mines. It is quite enough to mention only the famous Pangeion gold mines near the Strymon delta, captured by Philip II in 348 BC.

The Panagjurishte Treasure, made of pure gold, consists of 9 vessels weighing a total of 6.100 kilograms. Found in South Bulgaria in 1949, these vessels - eight rhyta and one large phiale (Fig. 4) was intended for use as a feasts set. It came from a workshop at Propontis or at Western Asia Minor, possibly in Lampsacus, produced in the latter part of 4th century BC. The phiale and amphora-rhyton in this treasure are marked with graffiti showing the weight of the vessels in two systems of measurement: one in units of Persian darics and another in units of Alexander (or Attic) staters. The Greek artists, that made the collection, depicted on these gold pieces various subjects taken from the mythology. On the amphora there is a scene from the ‘Seventh Against Thebes’ (Fig. 5); one of the rhyta with rams protome shows Aphrodite, Athena and Hera before the judgement of Paris (Fig. 6), another Herakles fighting with Ceryneian Hind, and Theseus in combat with the bull of Marathon, and third, a very rare scene, Dionysos with the nymph Eriope and not with Ariadne. Sometimes the names of the gods are inscribed in Greek beside their images. In this way the artists has informed their rich Thracian clients on the identity of personages, a manner absolutely unknown in Classical Greek Art. The shapes of rhyta were unpopular in Greece also. One of them ends in a goat protome, another in a horned head of a ram, two in the stag’s heads, and three others are in form of Amazon’s heads. The faces are depicted in the minutest detail, even the irises of the eyes are marked. The goldsmiths preferred a clothed body as his subject. The images of the deities are not individualized, nor are they linked in a complete artistic composition. Panagjurishte gold hoard is by far the richest and the most brilliant hoard discovered so far. It has been calculated that a Thracian ruler in late 4th c. BC has been able to pay to 500 mercenaries for a year only with the gold quantity.

The Borovo Treasure found in 1974, consists a magnificent set of 5 silver-gilt vessels intended for drinking of wine, dated from ca. 375-350 BC. These are three rhyta ending in a protome of a horse (Fig. 7), a bull and a sphinx, a large two-handled cup, and a amphora-rhyton showing scenes from the mysteries of Dionysos. Four of vessels are inscribed in Greek and we can read that they were gifted to Thracian king Kotys I from the inhabitants of the town of Beos in South-eastern Thrace.

Two other important treasures from the second half of fourth century BC found accidentally in North Bulgaria are deserving mention. Namely are the hoards from Lukovit and Letnitsa, both of silver and silver-gilt pieces. The first consists three small jugs, nine phialai, and three full sets of appliqués and ornaments for horse harness decorated with animal motifs (Fig. 10) and hunting horsemen. The latter, found in a large bronze receptacle, includes only such horse trappings appliqués. The new in this treasure are fifteen square and rectangular plaques showing scenes from Thracian myths (Fig. 11). As a matter of fact, horse harnesses ornaments decorated with fabulous animal motifs are wide spread among the Thracians in 6th-2nd centuries BC. Always in pairs, they were placed symmetrically on either side of the headstall adorning the horse’s head. At first sight their animal decoration looks like Scythian, but the precise analysis and a more careful study of the style reveals that the latter was influenced by skilled Thracian craftsmen and workshops.

Finally, the splendid Rogozen Treasure was accidentally discovered in the winter of 1985/86 in North-western Bulgaria. The 165 pieces of silver in this hoard has the overall weight almost 20 kilograms. Nearly all the objects were phialai and jugs. Thirty-one of them are gilded. Devided into two parts, one of 100 objects, the other of 65, they were found in five metres apart and only in 0.4 m depth. This immense bulk of vessels is a large collection which has been created, expanded and multiplied within a long period of time from the middle of 5th century to the last quarter of 4th century BC, or nearly 150 years. It is also the biggest ancient treasure ever found in South-eastern Europe. It includes vessels which can be attributed to certain Anatolian, Eastern Greek, Southern Thracian (=Odryssian) and Northwestern Thracian (=Triballi) workshops. Many of them are inscribed in Greek with poinçon. The inscriptions (Fig. 18-21), point out at least ten royal Thracian names (Satokos, Kotys, Kersebleptes, Didykaimos, Disloias etc.) and geographical sites (Beos, Apros, Geiston, Argiskes, Sauthabas, all in South-eastern Thrace). Another important moment is that the weight of some objects easily can be read in terms of Persian silver sigloi or in Thraco-Macedonian drachmae. The phialai are the predominant majority in the Rogozen hoard (108, which probably exceeds twice the total number of such cups presently preserved in the museums around the world!). Among them there are some interesting and unique pieces. The very beautiful silver-gilt phiale no. 4 decorated with central medallion with Auge and Herakles (Fig. 12) have been imported from a Greek city on the western seaboard of Asia Minor. A typical northern Thracian phiale is no. 95 even the motif around omphalos is Greek. Six embossed bull’s heads (bucrania), depicted in vigorous realism, altenating with six acorns (Fig. 16). Most of jugs are native Thracian. They depicting divine and cult scenes are governed by a definite canon and a strictly established stylistic iconography. There is a remarkable ‘boar hunting’ scene depicted on jug no. 159 (Fig. 15). Another central scene on no. 157 represents the Great Thracian Goddess riding in a chariot-quadriga (Fig. 14). A third scene on jug no. 155 shows again her riding on a lioness like an Amazon as a part in hunting action (Fig. 17).

The great number of the items in this exhibition came from Thracian burial mounds (tumuli). The abundant archaeological material, excavated in those millenary earth embankments, has greatly enriched our knowledge of Thracian life, usages, traditions and history. About 15, 000 such massive ground barrows remain existing in Bulgarian countryside, still visible today, distinctive in the surrounding hilly and plain lands north and south of the Balkan Range, ancient Haemus. Except as an inseparable part of the landscape, they provide us today with a great deal of information about the civilization of the Thracians. Up to the present more than 350 of them are excavated systematically, spanning the period between the end of 3rd millennium to the 4th century AD. The most richest and important burials dates from 6th-3rd centuries BC, the apogee of the Thracian state of Odryssae. The finds from Varbitsa, Rahmanli, Brezovo, Dalboki, Ezerovo, Duvanlij (Fig. 3), Mezek, Mogilanska mogila in Vratsa, Sveshtari, Kazanluk, Shipka etc. have most convincingly shown the several centres of political activity existed in Thracian lands of that period.

The Mogilanska mogila mound in Vratsa has provided another important group of magnificent Thracian art objects. In this ground barrow, situated exactly in the downtown of the city, in 1965/66 three stone tombs of noble Thracian chiefs was unearthed. The first had a circular plan but had been plundered in Antiquity. The richest was the second tomb. It had rectangular plan and two funerary chambers. In the outer chamber were disposed the remains of a biga. The straps of the horse’s bridle were wealthy decorated with silver appliqués. In the main chamber were recovered two skeletons - an adult and a young man. Around the adult’s skeleton were set 2 silver jugs, 4 inscribed phialai, a wood quiver (gorythos) with many bronze arrowheads, iron spearheads, a bronze Chalkidian type helmet, a silver-gilt greave (knemis) and a group of four Greek bronze vessels for feasts. Close to the man was discovered the skeleton of a young Thracian prince, unusually with face downwards. He was found dead by an iron spearhead, probably during war. An elegant gold wreath was still crowned with his head, a pair of heavy gold earrings with elaborate disc and lunate pendant (Fig. 4) were by the ears, a gold hairpin and a tiny gold spoon. Among the bones also gold buttons, pendants and rosette-shaped appliqués were scattered, apparently sewn to his dress. The last, third tomb of Vratsa had been partially robbed in Antiquity. In the second its chamber, there were skeletons of a man and a woman. Next to the man were found a gold and a silver jugs, another quiver with arrowheads and iron heads for spear. Two galloping quadrigae with a man in a hauberk are represented on the gold jug (Fig. 5). Its handle is shaped like the so-called ‘Heracles’ or reef knot. The female burial in this tomb also yielded wealthy gold jewellery and votive clay objects. The dating of the Vratsa tombs was facilitated by several Attic pottery vessels. Consequently, the burials in the Mogilanska mogila mound can be dated about 375-340 BC.

Thracian rulers and members of the nobility were buried in monumental stone tombs. Up to the present time approximately fifty tombs were uncovered in Thracian mounds in Bulgaria. Only for the period 1992-1996 were found 10 structures. They were the place for ritual ceremonies in honour to the deceased ruler, to whom were offered rich funeral gifts. In this sense, they constituted underground temples of heroes - heroons. Tombs from 5th-3rd centuries show great diversity in lay-out and structure but with some common elements. They were made of regularly cut stone blocks, and occasionally in baked bricks, and are sometimes adorned with a painted decoration. The two main categories are chamber with rectangular plan and circular, topped by a dome (tholos). The entrances of many Thracian tombs have sophisticated façades like the Macedonian, Persian and Lycian ones, with covered passages (dromos) and with painted walls and ceilings like the Etrurian ones.

A large accumulation of Thracian tombs from 4th-2nd centuries BC has been noticed in the Valley of Roses, near Kazanluk in South Bulgaria. The best known Kazanluk Tomb by its beautifully wall paintings of early 3rd century BC (Fig. 22) is one of the unique masterpieces of Early Hellenistic pictorial art not only in Thrace but in whole Eastern Mediterranean basin as well. Regardless of the small surface which the decorative friezes occupy, the unknown artist has succeeded in producing a work of art, which is exceptional in its character and impact, and at the same time fully native Thracian in its figural scenes. It has been suggested that the tomb was built during the reign of king Seuthes III, for him personally or for his close noble relative.

Seven new imposing tombs with developed façades (Fig. 8-9) and totally different one from another were recently uncovered in that area at the south foot of Balkan Range. Of course, most of them have been robbed yet in ancient times, and just one was absolutely unaffected by treasure-hunters.

This new exhibition will represent only a small fraction of Thracian art objects and of results of recent excavation of Thracian mounds in Bulgaria. Several teams there hardly work in the field for a couple of months each year. Unfortunately, the deep economic crisis in the country seriously damages the fund raising process. As elsewhere, it will take time of archaeologists to assimilate the results of excavation. It is quite clear, however, that the monuments of the Thracians Art will be delighting and exciting both scholars and public as in future as well in present. E. I. Paunov



Sofia, December 22, 1997


*Any mistakes, linguistic, gramattic or any others, in this paper are both the writer responsibilty alone.



Further Reading References

B. Filow, L’art antique en Bulgarie, (Sofia 1925).

I. Venedikov - T. Gerassimov, Thracian Art Treasures, (London 1975).

Al. Fol - Iv. Marazov, Thrace & the Thracians, (New York: St. Martin’s Press 1977).

I. Venedikov, Thracian Treasures from Bulgaria, (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art 1977).

R. F. Hodinott, The Thracians, (London 1981).

G. von Bülow, Treasures of Thrace, (New York: St. Martin’s Press 1987).

I. Venedikov, The Vulchitrun Treasure, (Sofia: Svyat Publishers 1987).

Al. Fol (ed.), The Rogozen Treasure, (Sofia: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Press 1989).


Gold of the Thracian Horsemen. Treasures from Bulgaria, Exhibition Catalogue (Montreal: Palais de la Civilisations 1987).


Traci: Arte e Cultura nelle Terre di Bulgaria dalle Origini alla Tarda Romanità. Exhibition Catalogue, Venice, Palazzo Ducale (Milan 1989).


The Riches of the Thracian Rulers. Exhibition Catalogue (Tokyo 1994).

Iv. Marazov, The Treasure from Rogozen, (Sofia: Borina 1997).


Oribulgari. Sette millenni di arte orafa. Gold from Bulgaria. Seven Millennia of Gold-Work Art. Exhibition Catalogue (Vicenza: Ente Fiera Fair, 1997).


The Glory of Thrace. Exhibition Catalogue, Galeria Uffici (Florence 1997).


Figure Captions

Fig. 1. Late Chalcolithic cemetery near Varna, ca. late 4th mill. BC. Archaeological Museum Varna. Photo by Kr. Georgiev. (Color slide)


Fig. 2. The gold vessels from Vulchitrun Treasure, ca. 13th-12th centuries BC. National Archaeological Museum Sofia. Photo by Kr. Georgiev. (Color slide)


Fig. 3. Gold kantharos from Vulchitrun Treasure, ca. 13th-12th centuries BC. National Archaeological Museum Sofia, no. 3192. wt. 4.395 kg. Photo by Kr. Georgiev. (Color slide)


Fig. 4. Gold phiale with negroes’ heads from Panagjurishte Treasure, ca. 325-300 BC, Archaeological Museum Plovdiv, inv. no. 3204, wt. 845.7 g. Photo by Kr. Georgiev. (Color slide)


Fig. 5. Gold amphora-rhyton from Panagjurishte Treasure, ca. 325-300 BC, Archaeological Museum Plovdiv, inv. no. 3203, wt. 1695.25 g. Photo by Kr. Georgiev. (Color slide)


Fig. 6. Gold rhyton with ram protome from Panagjurishte Treasure, ca. 325-300 BC, Archaeological Museum Plovdiv, inv. no. 3196, wt. 439.05 g. Photo by Kr. Georgiev. (Color slide)


Fig. 7. Slver gilt rhyton ending in a protome of a horse from Borovo treasure, ca. 375-350 BC. Museum of History Russe, inv. no. II-357. Photo by Kr. Georgiev. (Color negative).


Fig. 8. Slver rhyton with doe’s head from Rozovets, ca. 425-375 BC. National Archaeological Museum Sofia, no. B-59. Photo by Kr. Georgiev. (Color slide).


Fig. 9. Gold finger-ring with two engraved figures in intaglio from Malka mogila mound near Shipka, ca. 350-325 BC. Museum of History Iskra, Kazanluk, no. A II 1586. 14.83 g. Photo by VIFOR.


Fig. 10. Two gold necklaces from Malkata mogila mound near Shipka, ca. 325-300 BC. Museum of History Iskra, Kazanluk, no. A II 1581-1583. Photo by VIFOR.


Fig. 11. Thracian Tomb-heroon under Ostrousha mound near Shipka, ca. 350-330 BC. (Courtesy of Dr. G. Kitov). Photo by E. Paunov.


Fig. 12. Silver-gilt appliquè (triskeles) to horse harness with griffins heads from Letnitsa Treasure, ca. 350-330 BC. National Archaeological Museum Sofia, inv. no. A 606. 7x7 cm. Photo by Kr. Georgiev. (Color slide).


Fig. 13. Silver-gilt skyphos with female and rams heads from Strelcha, ca. 350-330 BC. National Archaeological Museum Sofia. Photo by Kr. Georgiev. (Color slide).


Fig. 14. Silver-gilt parade pectoral (plastron) from the Mal-tepe tomb near Mezek, ca. 340-330 BC. National Archaeological Museum Sofia. Photo by Kr. Georgiev. (Color slide).


Fig. 12. Silver-gilt inscribed phiale with Herakles and Auge from Rogozen Treasure, ca. 380-350 BC. Inscribed: ‘/This vessel belongs/ to Didykaimos’. Museum of History, Vratsa, inv. no. B 464, wt. 184 g, diam. 13.6 cm. (Courtesy Museum of History, Vratsa).


Fig. 13 a . Silver-gilt jug no. 156 from Rogozen Treasure - ‘lion attacking a stag’, ca. 350-320 BC. Museum of History, Vratsa, inv. no. B 457, wt. 157.5 g, ht. 13 cm. (Courtesy Museum of History, Vratsa).


Fig. 13 b. Drawing of jug no. 156 from Rogozen Treasure. Museum of History, Vratsa. Drawing by E. Tsenova.


Fig. 14. Silver jug no. 157 from Rogozen Treasure - ‘the Great Goddess in a chariot with winged horses’, ca. 350-320 BC. Museum of History, Vratsa, inv. no. B 446, wt. 134.9 g, ht. 13 cm. Drawing by E. Tsenova. (Courtesy Museum of History, Vratsa).


Fig. 15. Silver gilt-jug no. 155 from Rogozen Treasure - ‘the Great Goddess riding on a lioness like an Amazon’, ca. 350-320 BC. Museum of History, Vratsa, inv. no. B 448, wt. 210.4 g, ht. 13.5 cm. Drawing by E. Tsenova. (Courtesy Museum of History, Vratsa).


Fig. 16. Silver-gilt jug no. 159 from Rogozen treasure - ‘hunting a boar’, ca. 350-320 BC. Museum of History, inv. no. B ... wt. 162.4 g, ht. 12.5 cm. (Courtesy Museum of History, Vratsa).


Fig. 17. Silver phiale no. 95 from Rogozen treasure - ‘six bucrania with acorns’, ca. 350-340 BC. Museum of History, inv. no. B ... wt. 170.3 g, diam. 17.6 cm. (Courtesy Museum of History, Vratsa). Drawing by E. Tsenova.


Fig. 18. Silver inscribed phiale no. 29. ‘/This vessel belongs/ to Kotys from /the inhabitants / of Beos, Disloias make it.’ Museum of History, inv. no. B .., wt. 272.5 g, diam. 20 cm. Drawing by E. Tsenova. (Courtesy Museum of History, Vratsa).


Fig. 19. Silver inscribed phiale no. 42. /This vessel belongs/ to Kotys from /the inhabitants / of Argiskes’. Museum of History, inv. no. B .., wt. 170.7 g, diam. 14.8 cm. Drawing by E. Tsenova. (Courtesy Museum of History, Vratsa).


Fig. 20. Silver inscribed phiale no. 4. ‘/This vessel belongs/ to Kersebleptes from /the inhabitants / of Argiskes’. Museum of History, inv. no. B .., wt. ..g, diam. 12 cm. Drawing by E. Tsenova. (Courtesy Museum of History, Vratsa).


Fig. 21. Silver inscribed phiale no. . Museum of History, inv. no. B .., wt. ..g, ht. 9 cm. Drawing by E. Tsenova. (Courtesy Museum of History, Vratsa).


Fig. 22. Silver-gilt jug no. 145 from Rogozen Treasure - Derveni type. inv. no. B .. , wt. 196.3 g, ht. 13 cm. (Courtesy Museum of History, Vratsa).


Fig. 23. Silver gilt appliquès (phalerae) from the Galiche Treasure, late 2nd-1st c. BC. Photo by Kr. Georgiev. (Color slide).


Available Additional Illustrations

Figure Captions:

Fig. 6. Two gold necklaces from Malka mogila mound near Shipka, ca. 325-300 BC. Museum of History Iskra, Kazanluk, no. A II 1581-1583. Photo by VIFOR. (Original color slide, 62x45 mm).





© 1997-1998 Text by Evgeni Paunov, Sofia.

The photographs credits are courtesy of the District Museum of History - Vratsa, National Archaeological Museum Sofia, Archaeological Museum Plovdiv, (Bulgaria), etc.

© 1996-1997 Color slides by Krassimir Georgiev, Sofia and VIFOR, Kazanluk.

© 1993 Photographs by Evgeni Paunov, Sofia.

© 1986 Drawings by Elena Tsenova, Sofia.



Address of the Author:

Mr Evgeni I. Paunov, ma

graduate student in Classical Archaeology

at the University of Sofia "St. Kliment Ohridsky",



44 Aleko Konstantinov Street, Floor 1,

BG-1505 Sofia, BULGARIA (Europe),

phone: (+359-2)-476 963 and (+359-76)-220 57,

facsimile: (+359-2)-801 506 or (+359-76)-220 57,

e-mail: <>


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