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Articles and essays on the Thracians

The full text of the article is available where a link is provided.
If you have an essay or article on the Thracians, please send it to

Georgi Kitov, New Thracian Frescoes from Bulgaria, in Minerva Vol 13, No. 3 May / June 2002, pp 42- 44.  Contains many new photos and much interesting   information about the Alexandrovo tomb.

Christopher Webber, The Thracians, Colourful Barbarian Warriors from the North, in Wargames Illustrated 167, August 2001, pp44-48.  For additions and amendments to the Warhammer Thracian Army List in this article, click here

Christopher Webber, The Alexandrovo Tomb and Other Recent Discoveries, in Slingshot 216, July 2001, pp 47-50; this was replied to by Jim Webster in Guardroom of issue 217 (inside front cover)

Ljuba Ogenova-Marinova L'Armure des Thraces, in Archaeologia Bulgarica 3/2000, pp 11-24

Evgeni Paunov & Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, New Data on the Use of War Sling in Thrace, in Archaeologia Bulgarica 3/2000, pp 44-57

R & V Megaw et al, The Decorated La Tne Sword Scabbard from Pavolche near Vratsa, pp 23-41, in Archaeologia Bulgarica 3, 2000

The Thracian Sarissa, by Duncan Head, in Slingshot 214, March 2001, pp 10-13 - replied to by Bob Marshall and Phil Barker in Slingshot 215, May 2001, p 57

Sudip Bose, Realms of Silver & Gold: The Art of the Thracians, Archaeology Odyssey, July/August 2000, pp 48 -55

'Mythology as an alternative for motion of created world'  an article on Thracian mythology by Sonya Ilieva (Word document).

Royal Insignia, Tombs and Temples in the Valley of the Thracian Rulers, by Georgi Kitov, in Archaeologia Bulgarica, Vol 3, No. 1, 1999, pp 1-20

Warrior's Belt Appliques from Thrace (6th-4th Century BC), by Vassilka Paunova, in Archaeologia Bulgarica, Vol 3, No. 2, 1999, pp 15-29

Thracian DBM Army List: A Suggested Redraft, by Duncan Head,  in Slingshot 205, September, 1999, pp50-52

The Earliest Diploma in Thrace, Evgeni Paunov and Margaret Roxan, Zeitschirift fr Papyrologie und Epigrahik, Band 119, 1997 pp274-279 (Extract only).  A diploma was a Roman soldier's discharge papers (except it was metal!).

The Latter Days of a Love Poet- Ovid in Exile, John Richmond, Classics Ireland, 1995 Volume 2, pp 97-120 - Ovid's life amongst the Getai

The following are all in Problemi na Izkystvoto 1997 3/4:

Alexander Fol, The Thracian Cosmos
Ivan Marazov, The Hydra from Bashova Mogila Mound and the Mysteries of the Kabiri
Lidia Staykova, Appliques to Horse Trappings from a Burial Mound at Dolna Koznitsa, Kyustendil District
Dimitar Stanchev, Gold Adornments From the Thracian Tomb From Koprivets, Rousse District
Kostandin Kissyov, The Double Axe as a Symbol of the Odrysian Kingdom (VI-I C. B.C.)
Maya Avramova, The Pectoral - An Ancient Symbol
Dilyana Boteva, Votive Reliefs of the Thracian Horseman
Kostandin Rabadjiev, The Image of Heracles on the Gold Vessels from Panagyurishte
Stavri Topalov, Thracian Contributions to the Coinage in Early Antiquity

Thracian Glitter by Susan I Rotroff in Archaeology, Volume 51 Number 4 July/August 1998

Ancient Treasures from Thracian Tombs: by Evgeni Paunov in Athena Review Vol 1, No 4

Thracian Gold: Time Magazine April 27, 1998 - The American exhibitions

Thraco-Roman decorated carts from Tran, Western Bulgaria, by Vassilka Vladimirova-Paunova,  in Minerva Vol 9 No 5, October 1998, p4

N. V. Sekunda, Anatolian War-Sickles and the Coinage of Etenna, in Studies in Ancient Coinage from Turkey, Richard Ashton, London, 1996

Frank Rumsheid & Winfried Held Erinnerungen an Mokazis, 1stMitt 44, 1994, pp89-106

The Myth of Lycurgus, King of the Edonian Thracians, in Literature and Art, by J. G. Griffith, in AG Poulter (Ed), Ancient Bulgaria: International Symposium on the Ancient History and Archaeology of Bulgaria , University of Nottingham, Vol 1, 1983

The Scene on the Gold Amphora from Panagyurischte Once More, by J. G. Griffith, in AG Poulter (Ed), Ancient Bulgaria: International Symposium on the Ancient History and Archaeology of Bulgaria , University of Nottingham, Vol 1, 1983

The Thracian City of Seuthopolis, by Maria Chichikova, in AG Poulter (Ed), Ancient Bulgaria: International Symposium on the Ancient History and Archaeology of Bulgaria , University of Nottingham, Vol 1, 1983

Ancient Bulgaria's Golden Treasures, by Colin Renfrew,  in National Geographic, Vol 158, No 1, July 1980

Was Flash Gordon a Thracian? - General description of the Thracians and suggestions for changes to the 6th edition army list. By Chistopher Webber

Like Beasts of Prey- General discussion of the Thracians, with suggestions for changes to the  DBM army list. By Christopher Webber.  Published in 3 parts: Slingshot 207, January 2000, pp48-53; Slingshot 209 May 2000 pp 33-38; and Slingshot 210 July 2000 pp 38-43

The Thracians - Auxiliaries of the Hellenistic World , by Ian Cheshire, Minature Wargames April 1987 pp 13-16

The Ancient Thracian Iron Sword Rhomphaia, Kamen Kolev, in North-Eastern Bulgaria - Antiquity and Modernity: Proceedings of Papers, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Press, Sofia 1985, pp 306-313 (translated from Bulgarian by Daniel Genchev)

N Sekunda, The Rhomphaia: A Thracian weapon of the Hellenistic Period in AG Poulter (Ed), Ancient Bulgaria: International Symposium on the Ancient History and Archaeology of Bulgaria , University of Nottingham, Vol 1, 1983

Slingshot Articles 1977- 79: "The Great Rhomphia Controversy". (Slingshot is the journal of the Society of Ancients).

More on the Rhomphaia Roman Szwaba, Slingshot 117,  p19
Thracian Troop Types, Duncan Head, Slingshot 85, September 1979, pp 13-22
A postscript from Duncan Head, Slingshot 80, November 1978, pp 22-23
Further Note on an Ancient Weapon, A L Nickels, Slingshot 78,  p7
The Rhomphaia Lives! Charles Grant and Phil Barker respond, Slingshot 78, July 1978, pp 16-17
The Rhomphaia Lives!, Duncan Head, Slingshot 77, May 1978, pp 4-11
Rhomphaia: Was it Bill or Was it Sword? Russell King, Slingshot 70, pp12-13
Charles Grant Slingshot, May 1977
Phil Barker, Military Modelling, July 1974

The Thracians, Charles Grant, Military Modelling, November & December 1976

The Peltast (Slingshot 51 pp 9-17 & 20-21, C S Grant)

Tom Cockrell, Tactical Development of PeltastsSlingshot 112, pp 36-41

P A Brunt, Alexander's Macedonian Cavalry in Journal of Hellenic Studies 83, 1963, p 27

"On 'wagons' and 'shields': Alexander's crossing of Mount Haemus in 335 B.C." by Edmund F. Bloedow, Ancient History Bulletin 10.3-4 (1996).

C. Verdiani, Original Hellenistic Paintings in a Thracian Tomb, American Journal of Archaeology, 49, 1945

B. Bar-Kochva, Menas' Inscription and Corupedion, Scripta Classica Isrealica 1, 1974, p14

Irwin L. Merker, The Ancient Kingdom of Paeonia, Balkan Studies, 1965, pp33-55

N M Kontoleon,  The Gold Treasure of Panagurischte, in Balkan Studies Vol 3,1, 1962, pp 185-200

Fernando Quesda Sanz, Nuevos punales ibencos en Andelucia: (i) Puneales de frontoa, Gladius XIX, 1999 (has a picture of a  xiphos from Zimnicea)

Articles by Lydmil Vagalinski (  

1. Ein neuer spaetantiker Segmenthelm aus Voivoda, Schumen Gebiet
(Nordostbulgarien). - Archaeologia Bulgarica (Sofia) II, 1998, 1, 96-106.

2. On the Upper Chronological Limit of the Votive Reliefs of the Thracian
Horseman. - Archaeologia Bulgarica (Sofia) I, 1997, 2, 46-50.

3. Wo wurden in Philippopolis (Thrakien) ludi gladiatorii und venationes
durchgefuehrt? - Minalo (Sofia) IV, 1997, 1, 26-35 (in Bulgarian with German

4. Roman army - Gladiatura - Thracians. - Annuary of Dept. of Archaeology of
New Bulgarian University (Sofia) II-III, 1996, 243-251 (in Bulgarian with
English summary).

5. Diplome pretorien du castel de Iatrus de la Basse Antiquite, pres du
village de Krivina, dans la region de Russe, Bulgarie du Nord. - Arheologija
(Sofia) 37, 1995, 2, 26-30 (in Bulgarian with French summary; co-authorship
with K. Banev).

6. Roman Bronze Strigils and Rings for Them from Thrace (1st-3rd c. AD). -
In: Mols, S., Gerhartl-Witteveen, A. (eds.). Acta of the 12th International
Congress on Ancient Bronzes at Nijmegen, The Netherlands (June 1992).
Nijmegen 1995, 435-443.

7. Donnees numismatique pour des competitions sportives en Thrace romaine. -
Archeologija (Sofia) 36, 1994, 3-4, 6-18 (in Bulgarian with French summary).

8. Nouveau temoignage sculptural concernant les jeux de gladiateurs a
Philippopoli. - Archeologija (Sofia) 33, 1991, 2, 36-38 (in Bulgarian with
French summary).

9. Concernant l'appartenance sociale des gladiateurs en Thrace. Archeologija
(Sofia) 33, 1991, 1, 28-32 (in Bulgarian with French summary).

Related topics

The Illyrians by Jim Webster, from Slingshot 19

The Bithynians - a history of the Bithynians and their army.  By Christopher Webber.  Published in Slingshot 204, July 1999 pp48-52

Fighting with Bithynians using DBM, by Andrew Richardson, pp25-26,  Slingshot 193, September 1997

Menas' Inscription and Curupedion, Bezalel Bar-Kochva, Scripta Classica Isrealica I, 1974, pp 14-23

The Ancient Kingdom of Paionia, Irwin L Merker, Balkan Studies VI, 1965, pp 35-54

Armour from Roman Thrace (Slingshot 156/30-31, Michael Anastasiadis)

Armour from Roman Thrace (Slingshot 153/27-8, Duncan Head; 155/34, Phil Barker)

Andy Gittins,The Dacians, in Slingshot issues 74, pp 70-72; 75 pp 38-40; and 77 pp 22-23

Rome's Enemies: Germans and Dacians, by Peter Wilcox and G A Embleton, Osprey Men-at-Arms Series 129, London, 1987
This book is reviewed by Jan Coulston in Slingshot 111, January 1984, pp 13-15

Articles I would like to write: Iphicrates, or How to be King of the Mountain - the life of Iphicrates,   Brasidas, Thracian Hill forts, DBM difficult terrain and peltast tactics. Fiction? Lives of Zenobia, Iphicrates, Brasidas.

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This page last updated on Tuesday, 13 May 2003 by Christopher Webber

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