Mae-Wan Ho’s Claimed credentials

At the ISIS web site this biography appears: 

Chardon LL Hearing, Novotel, London, October 26  2000

“MAE WAN HO: My name is Mae Wan Ho. I obtained my Bachelor of Science degree in Biology in 1964, and my Ph. D. in Biochemistry in 1967 from Hong Kong University, and was Postdoctoral Fellow in Biochemical Genetics, in the University of California in San Diego from 1968 to 1972. During that time, I won a competitive Fellowship of the US National Genetics Foundation, which took me to London University in the United Kingdom, where I became Senior Research Fellow in Queen Elizabeth College.

“I then became Lecturer in Genetics from 1976 and Reader in Biology from 1985 in the Open University. Since retiring early in June 2000, I remain Visiting Reader in Biology at the Open University, and I am also Visiting Professor of Biophysics in Catania University, Sicily.

“My career so far spans more than 30 years in research and teaching in biochemistry, evolution, molecular genetics and biophysics. I have over 200 publications, including ten books.”

In Mae-Wan Ho's biographical blurb at the UK GM science debate, which was published in April 2003, it states  "Dr Ho has close to 300 publications."

So it would appear that her publication list must have grown by something approaching 100 publications in the space of two and a half years. This is quite remarkable. Because of this remarkable growth in her publication list I decided I would try and find out what Dr Ho has published. As direct requests to Dr Ho for a list were ignored I decided to enlist the help of readers of Agbioview (the mailing list of With their help I managed to construct this publication list for Dr Ho.

Mae-Wan Ho bibliography as extracted from PubMed, CAB Abstracts[a] and Web of Science[b] and from “human ecological social economical project”[c] :

There are around 47 papers that appear to be actual experimental works (shown in red). Only 2 of these appear to be relevant to molecular genetics (references 2 and 3 in the list) and these two appear to describe the same work – the cloning of a human gene in bacteria.

1.      Analysis Of Birefringence During Wound Healing And Remodeling Following Alkali Burns In Rabbit Cornea Huang YF, Meek KM, Ho MW, et al.  EXP EYE RES 73 (4): 521-532 OCT 2001 [d] 
2.      A cDNA Clone Coding For Human Sucrase-Isomaltase. Green FR, Edwards YH, Hauri HP, et al.  Heredity 59: 154-154 1987 (see also 3 below) 
3.      Isolation Of A cDNA Probe For A Human Jejunal Brush-Border Hydrolase, Sucrase-Isomaltase, And Assignment Of The Gene Locus To Chromosome-3. Green F, Edwards Y, Hauri HP, Povey S, Ho MW, Pinto M, Swallow D  Gene 57: 101-110 1987  [e] (related paper is 2 above) This is paper #46 on the hese-project bibliography list in the “Papers in Refereed Journals” section. Presumably the CV on this site is supplied by Dr Ho.
4.      Delayed Luminescence From Bovine Achilles' Tendon And Its Dependence On Collagen Structure. Ho MW, Musumeci F, Scordino A, Et al. J PHOTOCH PHOTOBIO B 66 (3): 165-170 APR 2002  
5.      A New Paradigm For Evolution Ho Mw, Saunders P, Fox S New Sci 109 (1497): 41-43 Feb 27 1986  
6.      A Structuralism Of Process Ho Mw  Riv Biol-Biol Forum 80 (2): 183-184 1987   
7.      A Universal Developmental Mechanism For Hutchinson Rule Ho MW  Riv Biol-Biol Forum 85 (3-4): 385-389 1992  
8.      Adult Gaucher's Disease: Kindred Studies and Demonstration of a Deficiency of Acid b-Glucosidase in Cultured Fibroblasts.  M.W. Ho, J. Seck, D. Schmidt, L. Veath,  W. Johnson, R.O. Brady and J.S. O'Brien. Am. J. Hum. Genet . 24: 37-45, 1972.  
9.      Agricultural biotechnology and environmental quality: gene escape and pest resistance. Loop-CB Jr.; Buttel-FH; Hoban-TJ; Gould-F; Beachy-RN; Bendahmane-M; Nickson-TE; McKee-MJ; Ho-MW; Ho-MaeWan; Matten-SR; Robinson-M; Hardy-RWF  (ed.); Segelken-JB NABC-Report. 1998, No. 10, 165 pp.; ref. at ends of papers. National Agricultural Biotechnology Council; Ithaca; USA Conference-proceedings  
10.  An exercise in rational taxonomy. Ho MW.  J Theor Biol. 1990 147(1):43-57.
11.   An exercise in rational taxonomy. Ho MW.  Riv Biol. 1989;82(3-4):338-40, 412-3. No abstract available.
12.  Beyond neo-Darwinism: an Epigenetic Approach to Evolution. M.W. Ho and P.T.  Saunders. J. Theor. Biol . 78: 573-91, 1979.  
13.  b-Galactosidase Deficiency in Hurler's Syndrome. M. MacBrinn, S. Okada, M. Wollacott, V. Patel, M.W. Ho, A.L. Tappel and J.S. O'Brien. New Eng. J. Med . 281:  338-43,  1969.  
14.  Bioenergetics and the Coherence of Organisms. M.W. Ho. Neural Network World  5,  733-750, 1995.  
15.  Biophoton Emission in Synchronously Developing Populations of Early  Drosophila Embryos.Y.M. Zhou, M.W. Ho, J.P.R. Bolton, M. Milani, M. Costato and  F.  Musumeci. Bios96 .  
16.  Bithorax phenocopy and pattern formation. I. Spatiotemporal characteristics of the phenocopy response. Ho MW, Bolton E, Saunders PT.   Exp Cell Biol. 1983;51(5):282-90.
17.  Bithorax phenocopy and pattern formation. II. A model of prepattern formation. Ho MW, Saunders PT, Bolton E.   Exp Cell Biol. 1983;51(5):291-9.
18.  Brief exposures to weak static magnetic field during early embryogenesis cause cuticular pattern abnormalities in Drosophila larvae. Ho MW, Stone TA, Jerman I, Bolton J, Bolton H, Goodwin BC, Saunders PT, Robertson F.  Phys Med Biol. 1992 May;37(5):1171-9. No abstract available.
19.  Cauliflower mosaic viral promoter - a recipe for disaster? Ho-MaeWan; Ryan-A; Cummins-J; Ho-MW Microbial-Ecology-in-Health-and-Disease. 1999, 11: 4, 194-197;    
20.  Causal Link Saunders P, Ho MW New Sci 148: 56-57 Dec 9 1995  
21.  Ceramide Trihexoside b-Galactosidase: Kinetic Properties and Alterations in Fabry's Disease. M.W. Ho. Fed. Proc . 31: 437, 1972.  
22.  Changes In Membrane Potential And Delayed Luminescence of Acetabularia Acetabulum Ho MW, Triglia A, Musumeci F, et al.  J PHOTOCH PHOTOBIO B 55 (1): 70-73 MAR 2000  
23.  Chloride Ions Cancel Out Inhibition of b-Galactosidase Activity by Acid Mucopolysaccharides. M.W. Ho and A. Fluharty. Nature (Lond) 253:660. 1975  
24.  Creating Colour-Contrast In Light Microscopy Of Living Organisms Newton RH, Haffegee JP, Ho MW J BIOL EDUC 32 (1): 29-33 SPR 1998  
25.  Development, Rational Taxonomy And Systematics. Ho Mw  Riv Biol-Biol Forum 85 (2): 193-211 1992   
26.  Differential Effect of Chloride Ions on b-Galactosidase Isoenzymes: A Method for Separate  Assay.  M.W. Ho and J.S. O'Brien. Clin. chim. Acta, 32, 223-36, 1971.  
27.  Effects of Morphine on the Hormonal Control of Metabolism - IV. Morphine induced Changes in Sensitivity of Glucose-uptake system of Muscle to Extracellular Magnesium.  M.W. Poon , M.L. Ng and E. O'F. Walsh. Biochem. Pharmacol . 7: 1575-  80, 1968.  
28.  Effects Of Successive Generations Of Ether Treatment On Penetrance And Expression Of The Bithorax Phenocopy In Drosophila-Melanogaster Ho Mw, Tucker C, Keeley D, Et al.  J Exp Zool 225 (3): 357-368 1983  
29.  Electrodynamic Activities and Their Role in the Organization of Body  Pattern. Ho, M.W., Ross, S., Bolton , H., Popp, F.A., and Xu, X.J. Scientific  Exploration 6: 59 -77, 1992.  
30.  Ether-Induced Segmentation Disturbances In Drosophila-Melanogaster. Ho Mw, Matheson A, Saunders Pt, Et al.  Roux Arch Dev Biol 196 (8): 511-521 1987  
31.  Evolution by Process, not by Consequence Implications of the New  Molecular  Genetics  on Development and Evolution. M.W. Ho International J. Comp. Psychology 1:  3-27,  1987.  
32.  Evolutionary Theory and World Future. M.W. Ho World Futures 38: 97-106,  1993.  
33.  Fabry's Disease: Evidence for a Physically Altered b-Galactosidase.  M.W. Ho, S. Beutler, L.Tennant and J.S. O'Brien. Am. J. Hum. Genet . 24: 256-266, 1972.  (Reprinted in Biochemical Basis of Inherited Human Diseases . MSS Information Corporation, New York , 1973.  
34.  Fatal flaws in food safety assessment. M.W. Ho and R. Steinbrecher Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Interactions 2, 51-84, 1998.  
35.  Fatal flaws in food safety assessment: critique of the joint FAO/WHO biotechnology and food safety report. Ho-MaeWan; Steinbrecher-RA; Ho-MW  1998, 60pp.; TWN Biotechnology & Biosafety Series No. 1; 8   Third World Network; Penang; Malaysia  
36.  Ganglioside Storage Diseases. J.S. O'Brien, S. Okada, M.W. Ho, D.L.  Fillerup, M.L. Veath and K. Adams. In Lipid Storage Diseases , pp 225-273, Academic Press, New York , 1971.  
37.  Ganglioside Storage Diseases. J.S. O'Brien, S. Okada, M.W. Ho, D.L.  Fillerup, M.L. Veath and K. Adams. Fed. Proc ., 30: 956-69, 1971.  
38.  Gaucher's disease: Deficiency of `Acid' b-Glucosidase and Reconstitution of Enzyme Activity in vitro I.  M.W. Ho and J.S. O'Brien. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci . USA , 68:  2810- 13, 1971.  
39.  Gene technology and gene ecology of infectious diseases. M.W. Ho, T.  Traavik, O.  Olsvik, B. Tappeser, C. V. Howard, C. von Weizsacker and G. C. McGavin.  Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 10, 33-39, 1998.  
40.  Generalised Gangliosidosis: Impaired Cleavage of Galactose from a  Mucopolysaccharide and a Glycoprotein.  M.C. MacBrinn, S. Okada, M.W. Ho, C.C. Hu and J.S. O'Brien.  Science, 163: 964-67, 1969.  
41.  Genetic Heterogeneity in GM S1 S Gangliosidoses . H. Galjaard, A.  Hoogeveen,  W.  Keijzer, H.a. de Wit-Verbeed, A.J.J. Reuser, M.W. Ho and D. Robinson. Nature  (Lond) 254: 6062, 1975.  
42.  Glucocerebrosidase: Reconstitution from Mutliple components Depends on  Acidic Phospholipids. M.W. Ho and N.D. Light, Biochem. J . 136 821823. 1973.  
43.  Glucocerebrosidase: Reconstitution of Activity from Macromolecular  Components. M.W. Ho, J.S. O'Brien, N.S. Radin and J.S. Erickson. Biochem. J . 131: 173-76, 1973.  
44.  Glucocerebrosidase: Stiochiometry of Association between Effector and  Catalytic  Proteins. M.W. Ho and M. Rigby. Biochem. Biophys. Acta . 396, 267-73, 1975.  
45.  Glycophingolipid Storage Disease: Biochemistry and Genetics. M.W. Ho,  A.G.W.  Norden and J.A. Alhadeff. Mol. Cell. Biochem . 17: 125138, 1977.  
46.  GM-S1 S Gangliosidosis Type II. J.S. O'Brien, M.W. Ho, M.L. Veath, J.F.  Wilson, G. Myers, J.M. Optiz, G.M. Zurheim, J.W. Spranger, H.A. Hartman, B.  Haneberg and F.R. Grosse. Clin. Genet . 3: 411-434, 1974.  
47.  Hazardous CaMV promoter? Cummins J, Ho MW, Ryan A.   Nat Biotechnol. 2000 Apr;18(4):363. No abstract available.
48.  Hazards of transgenic plants containing the cauliflower mosaic viral promoter. Ho-MaeWan; Ryan-A; Cummins-J; Ho-MW  Microbial-Ecology-in-Health-and-Disease. 2000, 12: 1, 6-11 
49.  Heredity as Process: Towards a Radical Reformulation of Heredity. M.W. Ho  Rivista di Biologia 79: 407-47, 1986.  
50.  Horizontal Gene Transfer (2nd edn). Ho MW.   Heredity. 2003 Jan;90(1):6-7.  
51.  How Rational Can Rational Morphology Be - A Post-Darwinian Rational Taxonomy Based On A Structuralism Of Process. Ho Mw  Riv Biol-Biol Forum 81 (1): 11-55 1988  
52.  Human Lactase And The Molecular-Basis Of Lactase Persistence Potter J, Ho MH, Bolton H, Et al.  Biochem Genet 23 (5-6): 423-439 1985  (related paper is 59 below)
53.  Hurler's Syndrome: Deficiency of a Specific b-Galactosidase Isoenzyme.  M.W. Ho and  J.S. O'Brien. Science, 165:611-13, 1969.  
54.  Hydrolysis of Ceramide Trihexoside by a Specific b-Galactosidase from Human Liver. M.W. Ho, Biochem. J . 133: 1-10, 1973  
55.  Hydrolysis of GM S1 S galglioside by Human Liver b-Galactrosidase Isoenzymes. M.W. Ho, P. Cheetham and D. Robinson, Biochem. J . 136: 351-59, 1973.  
56.  I-cell Disease: Biochemical Studies. J.G. Leroy, M.W. Ho, M.C. MacBrinn, K. Zielke, J. Jacob and J.S. O'Brien. Ped. Res . 1972.  
57.  Identity of Acid b-Glucosidase and Glucocerebrosidase in Human Spleen. M.W.  Ho, Biochem. J . 136: 721-29, 1973.  
58.  Imaging Liquid Crystalline Mesophases in vivo and in vitro: measuring molecular birefringence and order parameter of liquid crystals. Y.M. Zhou, R.H.  Newton, J.P.  Bolton , J. Haffegee, J.Y. Brown, S. Ross and M.W. Ho. Bios96..  
59.  Immunochemical Characterization Of Lactase In Subcellular-Fractions Of Human Jejunal Enterocytes Bolton H, Ho MW, Potter J, Et al.  Biochem Soc T 13 (1): 97-98 1985  
60.  In Defence of Complexity. P.T. Saunders and M.W. Ho.J. Theor. Biol . 68:  235-37, 1977.  
61.  In Vitro Formation By Reverse Dialysis Of Collagen Gels Containing Highly Oriented Arrays Of Fibrils Knight DP, Nash L, Hu XW, et al.  J BIOMED MATER RES 41 (2): 185-191 AUG 1998  
62.  Influence Of Cations In Extracellular Liquid On Delayed Luminescence Of Acetabularia Acetabulum Ho MW, Musumeci F, Scordino A, Et al.  J PHOTOCH PHOTOBIO B 45 (1): 60-66 AUG 21 1998  
63.  Integrated pararetroviral sequences. Matzke-MA; Mette-MF; Aufsatz-W; Jakowitsch-J; Matzke-AJM; Cummins-J; Ho-MW; Ryan-A Nature-Biotechnology. 2000, 18: 6, 579  
64.  Is neo-Darwinism Falsifiable and Does it Matter? P.T. Saunders and M.W. Ho.  Nature  and Systems 4: 179-196, 1982  
65.  Lactase Polymorphism In Adult British Natives - Estimating Allele Frequencies By Enzyme Assays In Autopsy Samples Ho MW, Povey S, Swallow D  Am J Hum Genet 34 (4): 650-657 1982  
66.  Liquid crystalline meridians. M.W. Ho and D.M. Knight. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 26, 251-263, 1998.  
67.  Liquid-Crystalline Mesophases In Living Organisms Ho Mw  Abstr Pap Am Chem S 207: 106-Iec Part 1 Mar 13 1994  
68.  Molecular Orientations In An Extruded Collagenous Composite, The Marginal Rib Of The Egg Capsule Of The Dogfish Scyliorhinus Canicula; A Novel Lyotropic Liquid Crystalline Arrangement And Its Origin In The Spinnerets Knight DP, Hu XW, Gathercole LJ, Et al. PHILOS T ROY SOC B 351 (1344): 1205-1222 SEP 30 1996  
69.  Morphine Cancels Effect of Magnesium on Hormone-Sensitive Uptake of Glucose  by  Muscle. E. O'F. Walsh and M.W. Poon (maiden name). Nature (Lond) 215: 525-26,  1967.  
70.  Mosaic Pattern Of Lactase Expression By Villous Enterocytes In Human Adult-Type Hypolactasia. Maiuri L, Raia V, Potter J, Et al. Gastroenterology 100 (2): 359-369 Feb 1991  
71.  Mosaic Pattern Of Lactase Expression By Villus Enterocytes In Human Adult-Type Hypolactasia. Maiuri L, Raia V, Potter J, Et al.  Pediatr Res 27 (5): 532-532 May 1990  
72.  On the increase in complexity in evolution. Saunders PT, Ho MW.  J Theor Biol. 1976 Dec;63(2):375-84. No abstract available.
73.  On the nature of sustainable economic systems. M.W. Ho World Futures 51,  199-221,  1998.  
74.  Organisms As Polyphasic Liquid Crystals Ho MW, Haffegee J, Newton R, Et al. BIOELECTROCH BIOENER 41 (1): 81-91 OCT 1996  
75.  Patent threat to research. Dalton H, Goodwin B, Ho MW, McGlade J, Prance G, Saunders P, Sherratt D, Smith JM, Whittenbury R.   Nature. 1997 Feb 20;385(6618):672. No abstract available.
76.  Polarized-Light Microscopy Of Weakly Birefringent Biological Specimens Newton Rh, Haffegee Jp, Ho Mw  J Microsc-Oxford 180: 127-130 Part 2 Nov 1995  
77.  Preparation Of A Monoclonal-Antibody Against Human Lactase Swallow DM, Potter J, Green F, Et al.  J Immunol Methods 77: 139-145 1985  
78.  Preparation Of Monoclonal-Antibodies To Lactase And Other Microvillar Membrane-Proteins By Immunizations Potter J, Green F, Swallow D, et al.  Invivo And Invitro Biochem Soc T 13 (1): 98-99 1985  
79.  Primary and Secondary Waves in Development. P.T. Saunders and M.W. Ho J.  Theor.  Biol 114: 491-504, 1985  
80.  Quantitative Image Analysis Of Birefringent Biological Material Ross S, Newton R, Zhou YM, Et al.  J MICROSC-OXFORD 187: 62-67 Part 1 JUL 1997  
81.  Quantum Coherence And Conscious Experience. Ho MW  KYBERNETES 26 (2-3): 265-& 1997  
82.  Rational Taxonomy And The Natural System. Ho Mw, Saunders Pt  Acta Biotheor 41 (4): 289-304 Dec 1993  
83.  Re-animating Nature: the Integration of Science with Human Experience.Ho,  M.W. Leonardo 24: 607-615, 1991.  
84.  Reliable Segmentation By Successive Bifurcation Saunders PT, Ho MW  B Math Biol 57 (4): 539-556 Jul 1995  
85.  Seeking clarity in the debate over the safety of GM foods. Ho MW.   Nature. 1999 402:575; author reply 575-6. No abstract available.
86.  Specificity of Low Molecular Weight Glycoprotein Effector of Lipid  Glycosidase. M.W.  Ho. FEBS Letters . 53: 243-47, 1975.  
87.  Stimulation of Acid b-Galactosidase Activity By Chloride Ions. M.W. Ho and J.S. O'Brien. Clin. Chim. Acta , 30: 531-34, 1970  
88.  The acupuncture system and the liquid crystalline collagen fibers of the connective tissues. Ho MW, Knight DP.  Am J Chin Med. 1998 26:251-63. Review.
89.  The Biology of Free Will. M.W. Ho. J. Consciousness Studies 3, 231-244,  1996.  
90.  The CaMV 35S promoter fragmentation hotspot confirmed and it is active in  animal systems. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 12, 127, 2000  
91.  The Glycolipid Storage Disease. M.W. Ho. Medikon 6: 3-12, 1977  
92.  The new age of the organism. M.W. Ho Architectural Design Profile No. 129,  New  Science = New Architecture?, 1997.  
93.  The New Quarrel Over GMOs. Perrier JJ, Ho MW, Morel JB, et al.  BIOFUTUR 2000 (201): 28-+ JUN 2000  
94.  The relativity of complexity and the principle of minimum increase. Saunders PT, Ho MW.  On the increase in complexity in Evolution II. J Theor Biol. 1981 Jun 21;90(4):515-30. No abstract available.
95.  The Role of Action in Evolution: Evolution by Process and the Ecological Approach to Perception. M.W. Ho.Cultural Dynamics 4: 336-54, 1991.  
96.  The unholy alliance. Ho-MW  Ecologist. 1997, 27: 4, 152-158; 

97.  Through a neo-Darwinian glass darkly. Ho MW, Saunders PT, Fox SW.  Bioessays. 1987 Jan;6(1):3-4. No abstract available.
98.  Towards a theory of the organism. Ho MW.   Integr Physiol Behav Sci. 1997 32:343-63. Review.[f]
99.  Unravelling Gene Biotechnology. M.W. Ho. Soundings 1, 77-98, 1995.  
100.     AIDS vaccines or dangerous biological agent? Veljkovic V and Ho MW.   AIDScience 2002,  
101.     What Is (Schrodingers) Negentropy? Ho Mw  Riv Biol-Biol Forum 87: 149-172 1994[g]   
102.     What is the Unit of Natural Selection? M.W. Ho and P.T. Saunders.Evolution  Theory  5: 169-72, 1981.  
103.     Where Does Biological Form Come From Ho MW  Riv Biol-Biol Forum 77 (2): 147-& 1984
104.     Where does biological form come from? Ho MW.  Riv Biol. 1999 92(3):489-92. No abstract available.

[a] Thanks to Chris Preston, University of Adelaide for supplying the CAB abstracts bibliography


[b] Thanks to John Gatehouse, University of Durham, for supplying the Web Of Science abstracts bibliography


[c] Dr Ho has a CV posted at the human ecological social economical project This dates to some time in 2002.


The CV has her publication list broken down into the following categories



books - research


Open University text books


papers in refereed journals


Contributions to Collected Volumes


conference papers


Popular major works


minor works






[d] In this study rabbits were treated as follows: "A sharply defined 12 mm diameter circular area alkali burn was made to the cornea by pipetting 0.5 ml of 0.5 N NaOH into a plastic well held firmly against the cornea for 35 sec" .

[e] Address: MRC Human Biochemical Genetics Unit, Galton Laboratory, University College London, U.K. Abstract: We report the nucleotide sequence and derived amino acid sequence of a cDNA clone encoding most of the N-terminal, isomaltase region of human sucrase-isomaltase (SI). A plasmid containing this cDNA, pS12, identifies a 6-kb mRNA found in human jejunum and the human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2. This human SI cDNA shows extensive overall homology with recently published rabbit SI cDNA. Using pS12 to probe DNA from a panel of somatic cell hybrids, we have assigned the gene encoding human SI to chromosome 3.


[f] Introduction: Organisms are so enigmatic from the physical, thermodynamic point of view that Lord Kelvin, co-inventor of the second law of thermodynamics, specifically excluded them from its dominion (Ehrenberg, 1967, Scientific American 217:103-). As distinct from heat engines, which require a constant energy supply in order to do work, organisms are able to work without a constant energy supply, and moreover, can mobilize energy *at will*, whenever and wherever required, and in a perfectly coordinated way. Similarly, Schrodinger (1944 What is life? Cambridge UP) was impressed with the ability of organisms to develop and evolve as a coherent *whole*, and in the direction of increasing organization, in defiance of the second law. He suggested that they feed upon "negative entropy" to free themselves from all the entropy they cannot help producing.


…[Snip] "...


 the idea that open systems can "self-organise" under energy flow became more concrete in the discovery of *disipative structures* (Prigogine, 1967: Introduction to thermodynamics of irreversible processes. John Whiley) that depend on the flow and dissipation of energy, such as the Benard convection cells and the laser (Haken 1977: Synergetics. Springer Verlag). In both cases, energy input results in a phase transition to global dynamic order in which all the molecules or atoms in the system move coherently.


From these and other considerations, I have identified Schrodinger's "negative entropy" as "stored mobilizable energy in a space-time structured system" (Ho 1993 The rainbow and the worm: The physics of organisms, World Scientific; Ho 1994 Towards and indigenous western science - the organism as a coherent space-time structure In: New Metaphysical Foundations of Modern Science, Institute of Noetic Sciences; Ho 1995: Bioenergetics, S327 Living Processes, An open University Third Level Science Course, Open University Press) which begins to offer a possible solution to the enigma of living organization.


In this article, I outline a theory of the organism as a dynamically and energetically closed domain of cyclic non-dissipative processes coupled to irreversible dissipative processes. This effectively frees the organism from thermodynamic constraints so that it is poised for rapid, specific intercommunication, enabling it to function as a coherent whole. In the ideal, the organism is a quantum superposition of coherent activities over all space-time domains, with instantaneous (non-local) noiseless intercommunication throughout the system.


[g] This might be this article as there need be no entropy generated in adiabatic processes - which occur frequently in living systems (see below) - the division into available and non-available energy cannot be absolute

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